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viernes, 10 de diciembre de 2010

La importancia de una coma

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Lea y analice la siguiente frase:

"Si el hombre supiera realmente el valor que tiene la mujer andaría en cuatro patas pidiéndole perdón".

Análisis Diferencial:

Si usted es mujer, con toda seguridad colocaría la coma después de la palabra "mujer", quedando la frase así:
      "Si el hombre supiera realmente el valor que tiene la mujer, andaría en cuatro patas pidiéndole perdón".

Pero, si usted es hombre, con toda seguridad colocaría la coma después de la palabra "tiene".  La frase cambia y las cosas quedarían como corresponden:
      "Si el hombre supiera realmente el valor que tiene, la mujer andaría en cuatro patas pidiéndole perdón".

sábado, 23 de octubre de 2010

La lectura global de Don Quijote RAE-YouTube

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La RAE tuvo la magnífica idea de realizar algo inédito y quizás insólito: la lectura de Don Quijote por parte de los usuarios de You Tube en fragmentos de máximo un minuto y medio, y así, construir la lectura entera de la novela.
Entrando a http://www.youtube.com/user/ElQuijote se encuentra la invitación y las condiciones de participación: mucha gente ya lo ha hecho.
Esta iniciativa es una forma más de ratificar a Don Quijote de la Mancha, como una de las obras más importantes de la literatura en castellano, y que, no importa el tiempo o el medio, la lengua de Cervantes siempre nos convoca.




jueves, 30 de septiembre de 2010

Simposio Internacional Actualización en Logogenia e Intervenciones en Discapacidad Auditiva

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 Tengo en honor de invitarlos al primer Simposio Internacional Actualización en Logogenia e Intervenciones en Discapacidad Auditiva, organizado por la Fundación Dime Colombia. En este evento participaré como ponente con el tema "La evaluación de la competencia lingüística del español escrito. ESACTIV.L. Escala de activación de la competencia lingüística en el sordo. (Desde una perspectiva Generativista)".


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jueves, 2 de septiembre de 2010

¿Una reforma ortográfica del castellano?

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Mucho se ha hablado, propuesto y especulado sobre una posible reforma ortográfica de la lengua española. Dicha reforma se ha propuesto en dos vertientes: la ortografía literal y la ortografía acentual. Tales propuestas apelan a dos razones:

  • Democratizar la norma escrita, que toma actualmente como modelo un dialecto muy minoritario (el del centro y norte de España).
  • Tender a una representacion fonémica, al menos dentro del dialecto que se tome como referencia.

Esto deja de lado el valor histórico que por muchos siglos se ha guardado y reconocido a la lengua. Si bien es verdad que la lengua es un ente vivo que se transforma y se re-crea una y otra vez, también es cierto que no puede desconocerse la historicidad propia de ésta. Es como si a lo largo del tiempo una persona se cambiara el nombre y el apellido por el sólo hecho de cambiar un tanto su carácter o su apariencia física.
El castellano es un idioma cuasifonético, pues existe en gran parte una estrecha relación entre lo que se pronuncia y lo que se escribe. Caso opuesto es el inglés: las normas de pronunciación son menos pegadas a su escritura, pero no por ello se ha propuesto cambiar aquella particularidad.
Una reforma ortográfica basada en estas dos razones deja mucho que pensar.
En cuanto a la ortografía literal, existen dos subvertientes: por un lado la que se conoce como "propuesta extremista de representación fonémica", la cual propone eliminar la "h" (excepto en el grupo "ch"), eliminar "ll" y sustituirla por "y", y usar "s" cuando su sonido sea /s/ o la interdental (que sólo se usa en la península). Algo que llama la atención es que se propone mantener "ll" en los hablantes que lo realicen fonéticamente. Uno se pregunta ¿no debe ser una lengua convencional? Si alguien lee "yuvia" y "lluvia" podría pensar que se trata de dos vocablos diferentes con significados diferentes.
Por otro lado está la "propuesta moderada de representación fonémica" que no es tan moderada, pues busca eliminar las grafías "v", "w", "k", "x" (cuando suena como "j"), "h" (excepto en el grupo "ch"), además de sustituir je y ji por ge y gi, ze y zi por ce y ci, ll por y, y (cuando suena /i/) por i, r por rr cuando suena como la vibrante múltiple, la ñ por nh y la m por n antes de consonante.
Desde otra perspectiva, se plantea una reforma acentual: es decir, en aquellas tildes que a veces tanto incomodan. En lugar de aprender todas las reglas, siempre se pondría la tilde donde se hace la fuerza acentual en todas las palabras.
Estas propuestas han tenido colaboradores y detractores. Por unas y otras razones, nunca se han adoptado, ninguna de ellas.
Un cambio en la norma del idioma (y más en uno que se constituye como la lengua oficial de más de veinte naciones) no se puede dar de un momento para otro, ni mucho menos de manera tan radical.
Hace unos años leí un artículo muy interesante al respecto, artículo que transcribo a continuación.


PESADILLA EN KLASE
Por Dalton Edwards
(publicado en 1946)

Como aún soportamos algunas de las cicatrices de nuestra pequeña escaramuza con la asignatura, es natural que nos sintamos encantados con la actual campaña del señor George Bernard Shaw a favor de un alfabeto simplificado.
Obviamente, como señala el señor Shaw, la ortografía necesita un repaso y una simplificación general. Sin embargo, nuestra resistencia al cambio requiere una gran cantidad de esfuerzo mental, y eso causaría que viéramos con cierta aprensión la posibilidad de recibir algún día un periódico impreso en chino.
Nuestro plan conseguiría el mismo fin que la legislación propuesta por el señor Shaw, pero de una manera menos chocante, ya que consiste simplemente en una aceleración de los procesos normales por los cuales el lenguaje se moderniza continuamente.
Como agente catalizador, sugeriríamos que se proclamara una Semana Nacional del Lenguaje Fácil, que inauguraría el presidente, donde se destacaría alguna simplificación para concentrarse durante la semana, y que sería adoptada durante el año siguiente. Todos los escolares tendrían vacaciones, y el tiempo perdido sería equivalente del ganado con la ortografía simplificada.
En 1946, por ejemplo, insistiríamos en la eliminación de la “h” muda, que de nada sirve, y la supresión de la “v” que reemplazaríamos siempre por “b”. Obbiamente, esa mejora sería celebrada en todos los círculos de ombres con mentes cíbicas y se consideraría que merece la pena, y los estudiantes de todas las ciudades serían aora receptibos acia cualquier cambio que eliminara la necesidad de aprender la diferencia entre dos letras, "b" y "v", y la comodidad de no tener problemas al olbidar las "h" intercaladas.
En 1947, sería posible sustituir la letra "c" por "k" en los sonidos donde ambas letras se pronuncian idéntikamente. Lo mismo sucedería kon la "qu", donde aorraríamos una letra. Imaginen lo mucho ke se klarifikaría la konfusión de las mentes de los estudiantes kon sólo dos años de este proceso. Ya abríamos eliminado kompletamente una letra del alfabeto. Las mákinas de eskribir y las linotipias podrían ser todas konstruidas kon una letra menos y todo el trabajo y los materiales destinados prebiamente a acer y fabrikar teklas "q" podría ser empleado en elebar el nibel nacional de bida.
En la fase de tantas notables mejoras y abances, es fácil preber ke para 1948 la "Semana Nacional del Lenguaje Fácil" sería un éxito destakado. Todos los eskolares esperarían kon konsiderable excitación la semana de bakaciones y kon publicidad nacional se anunciaría ke la doble konsonate "ll" dejaría de existir, y ke a partir de aora se eskribiría "y" en todos los bokablos.
Yegado 1949, el interés públiko en un alfabeto fonétiko puede esperarse aumentado asta el punto en ke se podría dar un kambio más radikal sin temor a las krítikas. Urgiríamos por tanto al empleo de la letra "j" siempre ke el sonido de la "g" suene komo tal. Eso ajilizaría un proceso donde no abría ke eskojer entre dos letras para un mismo sonido, kosa molesta en el lenguaje.
Kon tantos desarroyos ya echos, kedaría el nuebo paso de sustituir la letra "c" por "z" en todas las restantes okasiones, kon lo kual sería por fin posible eliminar otra letra kon este nuebo kambio, y el prozeso abanzaría azia su finalizazion kasi perfecta.
En 1951 podríamos dar un último paso adelante. Komo la letra "c" abría desaparezido en todo momento exzepto en el empleo de la "ch" y komo la "h" sólo se emplearía para esta okasión, sujeriríamos ke en la Semana Nazional del Lenguaje Fázil se botara por la sustituzión de la "ch" por la "c" simplemente. Kon ese nuebo kambio, eskucando las bozes sensatas y distinguidas ke nos an prezedido, nos kedarían palabras komo las siguientes:
chocolate se eskribiría cokolate,
llamativo por yamatibo,
ciclomotor por ziklomotor.
Todas las dibersas formas de eskribir un sonido ya no existirían, y siempre se sabría exaktamente kómo ejekutar la grafía de kada nuebo bokablo.
Kontinuando kon este prozeso, año tras año, y kon la fuerza ke da la kostumbre y la edukazión, alkanzaríamos finalmente un lenguaje realmente sensato. Azia 1975, nos abenturamos a dezir ke no abría más faltas de ortografía ni más komplikaziones, pues no abría dos letras diferentes para indikar un úniko sonido, e inkluso, el uso de la diéresis kedaría obsoleto. Kreemos ke el señor Co se sentiría enormemente feliz y realizado al komprender ke sus sueños se konbertirían al fin en una realidad; el zielo en la tierra.

Recomiendo leer el artículo La reforma de la ortografía del castellano.

martes, 3 de agosto de 2010

Edgar Allan Poe, The Murders In The Rue Morgue And The Detective Story

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EDGAR ALLAN POE, THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE AND THE DETECTIVE STORY


Autor/a: Marisol Rey Castillo
Revista: Dreams, UPN
Volumen: II
Número: 11
Fecha: Agosto-Noviembre 2001
Páginas: 16 - 18

Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most important writers in North American history. His poems and short stories are the most famous in the literature of that country. But it is not enough. Edgar Allan Poe is known as the creator of a literary gerne: the detective story.
But it has a problem. Many critics are in a dilemma: Is the detective story a literary genre?
There are many answers to this question. Most of the critics say no, because of several reasons that are too many to be named here. The point we are going to talk about is that there were some critics that had defended the theory that affirms that the detective story is part of the "real literature". Three of those critics are Austen Freeman, Thomas Narcejac and Pierre Boileau.
Austen Freeman in 1924 published an essay entitled "The art of the detective story" where he summarized his ideas about the detective story. Thomas Narcejac in his book "Une machine à lire: le roman policier" defends Freeman's ideas and explained them in a clearer way. Also, he gave some theories from Van Dine among others. Pierre Boileau together with Thomas Narcejac published a book called "Le roman policier" in which they summarized the history and criticize some aspects about the detective story. In each one of the writings, we find how they shield the detective story and give some aspects in order to analyze the detective story.
Here, I am going to take some aspects of the theory of Austen Freeman mentioned by Thomas Narcejac and Pierre Boileau in order to see these aspects in the detective story of Edgar Allan Poe, mainly in "The murders in the Rue Morgue ".
But first at all, we have to say what the detective story is. There are many definitions, but in order to summarize, we can say that he the detective story is the story of a crime since it is committed (even, it is planed) until its criminal is discovered by the detective. The protagonist in the detective story is not the criminal, nor the victim, neither the detective: the protagonist is the crime, we concentrate on the crime and all the elements by which it was committed.
Austen Freeman says that the detective story has a structure divided into four phases:
1. The enunciate of the problem.
2. The presentation of the important data to detect the answer to the problem.
3. The development of the investigation and the presentation of the answer.
4. The discussion of the clues and the demonstration.
In "The murders in the Rue Morgue" we can see those aspects, but the narrator gives an introduction of what he considers a method to discover the answer to a problem. The narrator talks about the deduction, and tells us how his friend and detective of this story, Monsieur Auguste C. Dupin, discovers his thoughts when they are together. The problem of the scientific method in the detective story is very abstract, but we are going to talk about this later on, now we want to concentrate on the structure of the story.
After this short presentation, the problem is outlined. Our narrator and his fellow saw in two newspapers the problem: "'Extraordinary Murders. --This morning, about three o'clock, the inhabitants of the Quartier St. Roch were aroused from sleep by a succession of terrific shrieks, issuing, apparently, from the fourth story of a house in the Rue Morgue, known to be in the sole occupancy of one Madame L'Espanaye, and her daughter, Mademoiselle Camille L'Espanaye..."1  and so forth. This first stage of the structure goes until the beginning of the second newspaper: "The Tragedy in the Rue Morgue. Many individuals have been examined in relation to this most extraordinary and frightful affair, but nothing whatever has transpired to throw light upon We give below all the material testimony elicited."2
Then we have the second phase of the structure: the presentation of the important data. We have the testimonies of more than seventeen people who arrived and found the bodies. Also something very important for an investigation is presented: the evidences or the clues that are going to lead us to the answer to the problem. In the story we have three basic clues: the voices heard by the witnesses, the windows of the room in which the bodies were found and the mark of the fingers of the ourang.
The third important aspect is the development of the investigation and the presentation of the answer to the problem. Here A.C. Dupin goes into the game. For him it is not enough to read the newspapers, so he goes to the stage of the crime by himself taking along the narrator of this story. When he goes there and he sees some aspects that are not mentioned by the newspapers, he finds the solution to the problem and presents it to his friend -it is the narrator. The guilty: "Ourang-Outang of the East Indian Islands." But for this, the investigation is developed and all the evidences given are developed and analyzed in order to get the final result. But there is a question: Is there a guilty one taking into account that we can not make guilty an animal? Is its owner guilty? They at the end of the story do not have punishment, but is there bigger punishment for a person (the case of the owner) than to see how two people are killed in such horrible way?
Then the last stage: the discussion of the clues and the demonstration. Here the evidences are explained. The first is the evidence of the voices heard by the witnesses. One voice is of a French man (the setting of the story is Paris), the other can not be recognized by anyone. The second is the puzzle of the windows closed, it means the problem of the "closed room"3 . The third one is the marks of in the dead bodies. Dupin amounts conclusions of this evidences: the crime could not be committed by any human being. Then he remembers an article which he had read before about the ourang-ourang. But it is not all. Also we can see in this part the motives by which the crime is committed. But this comes only until the confirmation. Dupin tells the narrator about this ourang and discusses why he arrived at this answer, but there is a problem, the answer is not confirmed, then, he calls the owner of the ourang and according to his testimony, he realizes he is right and the case goes on a true answer of the problem of the murders.
That is the way Austen Freeman says the detective story is structured, but that is not all. In the whole story, and of course during all the structure, we have some important aspects to analyze and to see the happy development of the problem.
One of those aspects is the way of investigating of the detective. Freeman says that the author of a detective story "necesita ser a la vez un creador (por ser la novela policiaca obra de imaginación), un lógico (por apoyarse la novela policiaca totalmente en el razonamiento) y un sabio (por depender la naturaleza misma del enigma de conocimientos científicos diversos y profundos)."4  And of course Edgar Allan Poe is all of this. Elsewhere we said we were going to talk about the investigative method. During all the story we see Poe is a creator, and mainly, in his style because he is the creator of the detective story. Now, since the beginning of the story we can see clearly that Poe is a logical man. He introduces the story talking about the method used by his friend Dupin. "Deductions" is a word used many times along the story. But here is when we meet the first problem. Did Auguste C. Dupin use the deductive method?
According to the science, the deductive method is the one in which you go from a universal truth to a particular truth, and the inductive method the one in which you go from a particular truth to a universal truth. According to Narcejac "Para Freeman, la novela policiaca es una verdadera investigación, llevada con todos los recursos del método científico..."5 . But here we can see in the way Dupin solves the puzzle that his method is not deductive as Poe says, neither inductive. If we take the aspect of the window in the story, which is one of the evidences:
"There are two windows in the chamber. One of them is unobstructed by furniture, and is wholly visible. The lower portion of the other is hidden from view by the head of the unwieldy bedstead which is thrust close up against it. The former was found securely fastened from within. It resisted the utmost force of those who endeavored to raise it. A large gimlet-hole had been pierced in its frame to the left, and a very stout nail was found fitted therein, nearly to the head. Upon examining the other window, a similar nail was seen similarly fitted in it; and a vigorous attempt to raise this sash, failed also. The police were now entirely satisfied that egress had not been in these directions. And, therefore, it was thought a matter of supererogation to withdraw the nails and open the windows.
"My own examination was somewhat more particular, and was so for the reason I have just given --because here it was, I knew, that all apparent impossibilities must be proved to be not such in reality.
"I proceeded to think thus --a posteriori. The murderers did escape from one of these windows. This being so, they could not have re-fastened the sashes from the inside, as they were found fastened; --the consideration which put a stop, through its obviousness, to the scrutiny of the police in this quarter. Yet the sashes were fastened. They must, then, have the power of fastening themselves. There was no escape from this conclusion. I stepped to the unobstructed casement, withdrew the nail with some difficulty, and attempted to raise the sash. It resisted all my efforts, as I had anticipated. A concealed spring must, I now knew, exist; and this corroboration of my idea convinced me that my premises, at least, were correct, however mysterious still appeared the circumstances attending the nails. A careful search soon brought to light the hidden spring. I pressed it, and, satisfied with the discovery, forebore to upraise the sash.
"I now replaced the nail and regarded it attentively. A person passing out through this window might have reclosed it, and the spring would have caught --but the nail could not have been replaced. The conclusion was plain, and again narrowed in the field of my investigations. The assassins must have escaped through the other window. Supposing, then, the springs upon each sash to be the same, as was probable, there must be found a difference between the nails, or at least between the modes of their fixture. Getting upon the sacking of the bedstead, I looked over the headboard minutely at the second casement. Passing my hand down behind the board, I readily discovered and pressed the spring, which was, as I had supposed, identical in character with its neighbor. I now looked at the nail. It was as stout as the other, and apparently fitted in the same manner --driven in nearly up to the head.
"You will say that I was puzzled; but, if you think so, you must have misunderstood the nature of the inductions. To use a sporting phrase, I had not been once 'at fault.' The scent had never for an instant been lost. There was no flaw in any link of the chain. I had traced the secret to its ultimate result, --and that result was the nail. It had, I say, in every respect, the appearance of its fellow in the other window; but this fact was an absolute nullity (conclusive as it might seem to be) when compared with the consideration that here, at this point, terminated the clew. 'There must be something wrong,' I said, 'about the nail.' I touched it; and the head, with about a quarter of an inch of the shank, came off in my fingers. The rest of the shank was in the gimlet-hole, where it had been broken off. The fracture was an old one (for its edges were incrusted with rust), and had apparently been accomplished by the blow of a hammer, which had partially imbedded, in the top of the bottom sash, the head portion of the nail. now carefully replaced this head portion in the indentation whence I had taken it, and the resemblance to a perfect nail was complete-the fissure was invisible. Pressing the spring, I gently raised the sash for a few inches; the head went up with it, remaining firm in its bed. I closed the window, and the semblance of the whole nail was again perfect."6
In this part we can see that Dupin does not go from a universal truth to a particular one, nor viceversa, but he goes from one particular thing to another. He compares the windows and he sees their mechanisms are the same, so he can conclude one of the clues in the story.
Now, taking into account this, we can see that Poe was wrong in mentioning this method. Not that we can say Poe did not do a good job. What happened is that we can see this from the methods of Stuart Mill.
He says there are four methods: the method of the concordance, the method of the difference, the method of the concomitant variations, and the method of the residual. The method that is applicable to Dupin's method is the method of the difference that says: "Consiste en considerar dos casos tan semejantes como sea posible, de modo que sólo difieran por un elemento. Si el fenómeno se produce en un caso y no en el otro, ese elemento será el antecedente buscado"7  The difference in this case is the nail. The difference between the nail of the first window and the nail of the second window. So we can say that it is the method used by Dupin.
The last aspect we are going to deal with is the fantastic aspect. "... es fantástico lo que escapa a toda explicación; lo que no es racional..."8 . Here we have the difference between the two styles we know in Poe's short stories. One of them is when the end has a fantastic explanation, it means, that does not have logical explanation, for example we have several stories as "The fall of the house of Usher", "The oval portrait", "The black cat" and so forth. The fantastic aspect goes with these stories. There is not explanation for the case of lady Madelene and Roderick Usher's house. There is no logical explanation for the causes of the death of the girl in the oval portrait. There is no logical explanation for the draw of the black cat. But there are others. "The murders in the Rue Morgue ", "The mystery of Marie Roget", "The purloined letter" and the "The gold bug" are detective stories. They have logical explanation. The fantastic aspect is not presented. In all these stories we can know the guilty and the causes for those crimes being committed.
Finally we can say that Edgar Allan Poe is an important writer. We have to distinguish the differences between the detective story and a mystery story, both kinds, written by Poe. Aspects of the theories given by Austen Freeman, Thomas Narcejac and Pierre Boileau can be applicable to the detective stories of Edgar Allan Poe, or at least "The murders of the Rue Morgue ".
Now it remain a question: the detective story as part of literature. People who does not like this idea will continue arguing that it is not part. Some other are going to continue fighting and proving that the detective story is as respetable genre as any other in literature. Perhaps the theories of Freeman, Nacerjac or Boileau are not complete or do not satisfy critics, but I think it is a little step in order to prove, one day, that the detective story is an important part of literature and that the work of many authors as Poe, Doyle, Agatha Christie, S.S. Van Dine, among others, will be recognized as gems of the world literature.

----------------------
NOTES:

1. POE, Edgar Allan. (1985) "The mourders in the Rue Morgue in "Edgar Allan Poe: His bests short stories. Houghtonmiffling Company. New York, p 59.
2. Op cit p 61.
3. The “closed room” is a common aspect in a detective story: a dead body is found in a closed room (windows and doors are locked, nobody could enter or leave the room).
4. NARCEJAC, Thomas (1986) Una máquina de leer: la novela policiaca. Fondo de cultura económica, S. A. De C.V. México D. F. Pg 47.
5. Op cit pg 55.
6. POE, Edgar Allan. (1985) "The mourders in the Rue Morgue in "Edgar Allan Poe: His bests short stories. Houghtonmiffling Company. New York, p 74-76.
7. NARCEJAC, Thomas (1986) Una máquina de leer: la novela policiaca. Fondo de cultura económica, S. A. De C.V. México D. F. Pg 38.
8. Op cit pg 154.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY:


BOILEAU-NARCEJAC (1982) La novela policial. Editorial Paidos. Buenos Aires.
NARCEJAC, Thomas (1986) Una máquina de leer: la novela policiaca. Fondo de cultura económica, S. A. De C.V. México D. F.
POE, Edgar Allan. (1985) "The mourders in the Rue Morgue in "Edgar Allan Poe: His bests short stories. Houghtonmiffling Company. New York.
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2001
MRC ©


2010
MRC ©



viernes, 2 de julio de 2010

The Terrible Loneliness

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"The Last lovely City" is a short story written by Alice Adams (1927-1999). An American writer. After publishing her first story for the New Yorker (the magazine) in 1969, Ms. Adams became one of this magazine's most distinctive voices. Her 1975 novel "Families and Survivors," about a woman who moves from the South to San Francisco, established her as an important literary presence. "Superior Women," which traced the lives of five Radcliffe women, became a bestseller in 1984.
In this short story we can see Benito Zamora, a Mexican who is the main character of the story. He is a doctor, a very successful doctor, but, through the whole story we can see that even though he is famous and rich and known for everyone as an excellent doctor, he is not happy because he feels alone, and in fact he is alone although he knows everybody and he is grateful for many people, since the death of his wife Elizabeth he realizes that. He sees the society as bad, and he does not like to meet that people because he thinks they are corrupt.
"Old and famous, an acknowledged success both in this country and in his native Mexico, though now a sadhearted widower..." that is as this story begins. Since the very beginning we can see his success and his loneliness. Benito is invited to Stinson Beach to a lunch by Carla, a woman who he has met, but he wonders the reason for her invite to him. He remembrers his wife when he remembers the parties they used to go.
Here is where we can find the first part where we can see how alone he is "After Elizabeth died, now some few months ago, in April, friends and colleagues were predictably kind —many invitations, too many solicitous phone calls. And then just as predictably (he had seen this happen with relatives of patients), all the attention fell off and he was often alone" now that Benito's wife died he is alone and he knows nobody is going to be with him because he knows how people are. "Why must they leave him now, when he is so vulnerable?" Benito does not accept and does not resign that hi is alone. At the end of the story he says "You know, the whole city seems so corrupt these days. It's all real estate, and deals" here, Benito refers to the society who lives in that city which is San Francisco.
He is frecuently remembering his wife. In each word, in each movement, in each detail he sees, he is always remembering what Elizabeth said, did, thought. That is why he feels alone, because now she is not with him. Benito knows that he ended alone now that he is an old man and he is angry because of that. "But that is now how he ended up, the doctor tells himself, in a fierce interior whister. He ended up with Elizabeth, who was both, beautiful and good, a serious woman, with whom he lived harmoniously, if sometimes sadly (they had no children, and Elizabeth was given to depression)... The actual is now, of course, and he has ended up alone. Childless and without Elizabeth". Because of his loneliness, He is always rue for himself "The doctor takes deep breaths, inhaling the cool, fresh wind, and exhaling, he hopes and believes, the germs of self-pity that sometimes enter and threaten to invade his system".
In this lunch, he is intruduced to some friends of the owner "People extend their hands; they all say how nice it is to meet the doctor; several people say that they have heard so much about him". He is famous and alone. Also in this lunch or party, he meets some people from his past and he remembers how corrupt they are. He does not like to meet with these people, he feels uncomfortable and he is affraid of them "He feels the presence of those people in that rather vulgar, glassedin house behind him — of Dolores Gutierrez and Herman Toliver, and God knows who else, what other ghosts from his past whom he simply failed to see. As though they were giants, he feels their looming presences, anf feels their connection to some past year or years of his own life". Benito does not want nobody to remind him his past life. We do not know excactly why. Perhaps because it is a corrupt past of his life, o because it is full of Elizabeth's remembrances, or because he wants to bury his past as he buried Elizabeth.
Benito is affraid of this loneliness and he tries hopelessly to take out this loneliness from him. But he is aware that he must choose the right person. Not a person as the rest of the society, nor a corrupt person, no. He needs a right person. He knows Carla and he finds she is full os values. When he knows Carla, he becames too much built up hopes. In the party we can see that when Dolores arrives to try to separate Carla fom Benito, and she flatters Carla, she said: "Why don't you ever say such flattering things to me?" and benito asks himself "Is she flirting with him, serious flirting? Well, she could be". Since this point of the story we can see that the doctor discovers that he wants to marry this woman. He begins to feel good in her partnership: "This walk, and the conversation, are serving both to calm and to excite the doctor. Simultaneously. Most peculiar. He feels calm, and at the same time a strange warm, quite excitement". Anyone could imagine that Benito fell in love with Carla, but that is not true because in the story we do not find that and because we know Benito only wants to take away his loneliness. Benito only thinks of Carla's partnership, he imagines "She could redecorate the house any way she would like to, he thinks. Throw things out, repaint, reupholster, add mirrors. His imagination sees, all completed, a brilliant house, with Carla its brillian, shining, center". He thinks of carla as a person to share with him a life, but not a love as he thinks of Elizabeth "...the golden peaks of their time together. Beautiful days, long nights of love".
Benito thinks his life is fixed now that he is going to marry Carla, but his life and his hopes are destroyed by the news that Carla has a fiancé. "The sun has sunk into the ocean, and Benito's heart has sunk eith it, drowned. He shudders, despising himself. How could be possibly have imagined, how not have guessed?"
Now, the only one way that exists to end this loneliness is to go to Mexico with his mother and to the clinics he had founded "Well, I 'll be awfully glad to get back to Mexico... The doctor had no plan to say (much less to do) any of this before he spoke, but he knows that he is now committed to this action...He will buy a house in San Cristóbal de las Casas, and will bring his mother there, from Oaxaca, to live in that house for as long as she lasts. And he, for as long as he lasts, will work in his clinics, with his own poor... That as soon as he can arrange things he will be back in Chiapas, in Mexico. For the rest of his life". That is the only thing he can do for not feeling alone.
Finally, we can say that this short story is an example of what some people live. Not only in San Francisco or in Chiapas, but around the world. People feel alone. They feel abandoned even though there are many people around them, although they have family, and job, and a "normal" life, people feel alone. The case of Benito shows how a person can be rich, famous, and successful, but also can be alone even though he knows everybody. And also this case shows the rejection he has towards this society and his hopelessly desire to escape from this society and from this loneliness.

___________________

BIBLIOGRAPHY


STONE, Robert, ed. "The best American Short Stories, 1992" Houghtonmiffling Company. New York, 1992. Pgs 1 - 14.

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2009
MRC ©



2010
MRC ©

sábado, 5 de junio de 2010

¿Poner o colocar?

No hay comentarios:
Uno de los fenómenos léxicos más cotidianos en nuestra habla es el uso de la palabra "colocar" como sinónimo de "poner". Aunque en el sentido estricto no son sinónimos (partiendo de que si son dos palabras es porque tienen dos significados diferentes) los usuarios han adaptado el "colocar" y el uso supera en frecuencia al "poner". Es extraño, pues colocar sólo cuenta con cinco acepciones, mientras que poner tiene cuarenta y cuatro (sin hablar de las locuciones).
El columnista de "El Tiempo", Mauricio Pombo, escribió un artículo hace algún tiempo, texto que transcribiré a continuación. La pregunta es ¿podrá ser "corregido" este error, o tendrémos que aceptarlo y modificar la norma para hacer de "colocar" un sinónimo de "poner?

Descolocar la colocadera
Mauricio Pombo ("El Tiempo" 7 de agosto de 2007)

Me coloco iracundo cada vez que me coloco a pensar cómo se colocó el verbo colocar en las entrañas de nuestro idioma. Creo que la epidemia ya es incontrolable y que, de la misma manera como perdimos la pelea contra los ‘deques’, la ‘escuchadera’, el ‘desear’ y los ‘habían’, esta batalla también ya está perdida. Lo grave es que la enfermedad avanza y puede llegar a límites insospechados y desconocidos. Más adelante me atrevo a sugerir un nuevo diccionario de la colocadera (fenómeno que puede obedecer a las altas cifras de desempleo, siendo esta una manera de colocarse en algo). Por el momento señalo algunas de las perlas que he oído últimamente, no solo en la calle, sino en radio y televisión.
No es un chiste, he oído decir, por ejemplo: ‘El jefe se colocó furioso’; ‘Huy, no se me coloque distinguido’; ‘Cada día más gente se coloca las piyamas’; ‘Le dio tanta vergüenza que se colocó rojo’. Y la lista se haría eterna si citamos los cientos de casos más en los que los colombianos, venezolanos y de otros países hermanos han optado por reemplazar el verbo poner colocando el colocar. El diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua define el verbo colocar de la siguiente manera: “Poner a alguien o algo en su debido lugar. 2. Invertir dinero. 3. Acomodar a alguien, poniéndole en algún estado o empleo”. Así de sencillo. Los políticos colocan su gente en puestos públicos. Y quienes tienen billete lo colocan en acciones o en lo que les dé la gana. No más.
Desafortunadamente, como ya lo señalé, esta parece ser ya una causa perdida. La enfermedad de la colocadera tiende a hacer metástasis. Muchas palabras que se comPONEN con el verbo poner tienen su vida colocada en riesgo. Algunos ejemplos: sobreponer, disponer, componer, suponer, proponer, imponer, exponer, reponer, deponer; así como los sustantivos derivados: disposición, suposición, exposición, reposición, etc.
En vista de que las cosas van como van, sugiero que nos vayamos preparando para oír (verbo al que también le expidieron acta de defunción las brigadas de escuchadores) esperpentos como el siguiente. En lugar de la frase ‘El Gobierno dispuso un nuevo impuesto para reponer sus arcas’, tendremos que oír: ‘El Gobierno discolocó un nuevo incoloca para recolocar sus arcas’. Díscolo, ¿o no? Queda uno totalmente descolocado.
Para terminar -y cambiando totalmente de tema-, quiero referirme a la entrevista radial que concedió el ex senador Araújo a la Radio Guatapurí, de Valledupar. En ella dice, de manera reiterada, que la culpa de todo lo malo que le ocurre al país (incluyendo la injusticia que le cometen a él) recae sobre la lanuda aristocracia bogotana y sus medios de prensa. La sufrida y abnegada clase política costeña -y con ella los costeños todos- es víctima de la persecución dirigida desde la fría capital. Ya voy, Toño. ¿Los Pumarejo y los Santo Domingo (Caracol TV y El Espectador) estarán notificados de su calidad de aristócratas lanudos? ¡Eeeda, nooo joda! Colócate serio.







sábado, 15 de mayo de 2010

Feliz Día del Profesor

1 comentario:
Todavía no sé cuántas veces he escuchado estas frases:
Profe, ¿había que leer algo para hoy?
Profe, ¿había tarea?
Profe, ¿para qué nos sirve eso que nos estás enseñando?
Profe, ¿por qué me calificaste tan bajito?
Profe, ¿puedo entregarte la tarea mañana? Es que he tenido demasiadas cosas que hacer y no he podido hacer nada.
Profe, ¿y es que tú calificas tildes?
Profe, es que tengo a mi mamá en el hospital y no hay nadie más que pueda estar pendiente de ella.
Profe, es sólo una décima, súbeme a 3.0.
Profe, estoy demasiado enfermo, con gran esfuerzo vine a tu clase, así que debes estar agradecida.
Profe, hoy no pude traer la tarea porque el perro se la comió.
Profe, me fue mal en el parcial porque no me diste suficiente tiempo, estaba muy largo y muy difícil.
Profe, mi abuelita se murió la semana pasada y no he tenido cabeza para hacer nada más.
Profe, que pena llegar tan tarde, pero es que había un trancón terrible, antes llegué.
Profe, yo no hice la tarea, pero pregúntame que yo ya me sé eso.
Profe, yo sí hice la tarea, pero es que se me quedó en la oficina.
Profe, yo sí hice la tarea, pero es que se me quedó en la otra carpeta.
Profe, yo sí hice la tarea, pero se me quedó justo sobre la mesa del comedor, es que salí de afán de la casa.
Y todavía hay quienes creen que ser docente es fácil...


2009
MRC ©



2010
MRC ©


Feliz Día del Profesor


−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Frases sobre los maestros y su profesión

A las plantas las endereza el cultivo; a los hombres, la educación. (Jean J. Barthélemy)

Aquel que desee convertirse en maestro del hombre, debe empezar por enseñarse así mismo antes de enseñar a los demás; y debe enseñar primero con el ejemplo antes de que lo haga verbalmente. Pues aquel que se enseña a sí mismo y rectifica sus propios procedimientos, merece más respeto y estimación que el que enseña y corrige a otros, eximiéndose a él mismo. (Khalil Gibran)

Cuando el pueblo es tan numeroso, ¿Qué puede
hacerse en su bien? Hacerlo rico y feliz. Y cuando
sea rico ¿Qué más puede hacerse por él? Educarlo. (Confucio)

Dar amor, constituye en sí, dar educación. (Eleonor Roosevelt)

Del hablador he aprendido a callar, del intolerante
a ser indulgente y del malévolo a tratar a los
demás con amabilidad. Y por curioso que parezca,
no siento ninguna gratitud a esos maestros. (Khalil Gibran)

Educad a los niños y no será necesario
castigar a los hombres (Pitágoras)

Educar en la igualdad y el respecto es educar
contra la violencia. (Benjamín Franklin)

Educar no es dar carrera para vivir, sino
templar el alma para las dificultades de la vida. (Pitágoras)

El buen maestro hace que el mal estudiante s
e convierta en bueno y el buen estudiante en
superior. (Maruja Torres)

El maestro que intenta enseñar sin inspirar
en el alumno el deseo de aprender está
tratando de forjar un hierro frío. (Horace Mann)

El objeto de la educación es formar seres aptos
para gobernarse a sí mismos, y no para se
gobernados por los demás. (Herbert Spencer)

El objeto más noble que puede ocupar el hombre
es ilustrar a sus semejantes. (Simón Bolivar)

El oficio del maestro: Enseñar es un ejercicio
de inmortalidad. (Ruben Alves)

El principio de la educación es predicar
con el ejemplo (A.R.J. Turgot)

El que no sabe es un imbécil. El que sabe y
calla es un criminal. (Bertolt Brecht)

El secreto de la educación está en el
respeto al discípulo (Ralph W. Emerson)

Enseñando aprendemos (Séneca)

Enseñar a quien no quiere aprender es como
sembrar un campo sin ararlo. (Rchard Whately)

Enseñar a quien no tiene curiosidad por
aprender es sembrar un campo sin ararlo.
(Rchard Whately)

Enseñar es aprender dos veces (Joseph Joubert)

Enseñar es un ejercicio de inmortalidad. (Ruben Alves)

Es detestable esa avaricia espiritual que tienen
los que, sabiendo algo, no procuran la transmisión
de esos conocimientos. (Miguel de Unamuno)

Estoy firmemente convencido de que nadie
educa a otro, en el mejor de los casos, sólo
propiciamos, contagiamos que otros
se eduquen a sí mismos. (Abel Pérez Rojas)

Hay dos tipos de educación, la que te enseña
a ganarte la vida y la que te enseña a vivir.
(Antony de Melo)

La educación consiste en enseñar a los hombres,
no lo que deben pensar, sino a pensar. (Calvin Goolidge)

La educación no crea al hombre, le ayuda a
crearse a sí mismo. (Maurice Debesse)

La naturaleza hace que los hombres nos
parezcamos unos a otros y nos juntemos; la
educación hace que seamos
diferentes y que nos alejemos. (Confucio).

La tarea del educador moderno no es podar l
as selvas, sino regar los desiertos. (Clive Staples Lewis)

Los discípulos son la biografía del
maestro. (Domingo Faustino Sarmiento)

Los mejores profesores son aquellos que saben
transformarse en puentes, y que invitan a sus
discípulos a franquearlos. (Nikos Kazantzakis)

Maestro, quisiera saber cómo viven los peces
en el mar. Como los hombres en la tierra: l
os grandes se comen a los pequeños.
(William Shakespeare)

No es mejor maestro el que sabe más, sino
el que mejor enseña. (Vanceli)

Por cada persona que quiere enseñar, hay,
aproximadamente, treinta personas que
no quieren aprender. (Walter C. Sellar)

Quien volviendo a hacer el camino viejo aprende
el nuevo, puede considerarse un maestro. (Confucio)

Si cree usted que la educación es cara,
pruebe con la ignorancia. (Derek Bok)

Si domas a un caballo con gritos, no esperes
que te obedezca cuando le hables (Dagobert D. Runes)

Tan solo por la educación
puede el hombre llegar a ser hombre.
El hombre no es más que lo que la educación
hace de él. (Emmanuel Kant)

Un profesor es el que te enseña, un maestro es del
que aprendes (Domingo Faustino Sarmiento)

Un profesor trabaja para la eternidad: nadie puede
predecir dónde acabará su influencia. (H.B. Adams)

Una cosa es saber y otra
saber enseñar. (Marco Tulio Cicerón)

martes, 27 de abril de 2010

"...POOR DEATH..."

No hay comentarios:
JOHN DONNE (1572-1631)

HOLY SONNETS:

SONNET 10

Death, be not proud, though some have called thee
Mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so;
For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow,
Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me.
From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be,
Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow,
And soonest our best men with thee do go,
Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery.
Thou art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men,
And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell;
And poppy or charms can make us sleep as well
And better than thy stroke; why swell'st thou then?
One short sleep past, we wake eternally,
And death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die.


In the sonnet number ten of his work called "Holy Sonnets", John Donne (1572-1631) shows as the real face of Death, he wants to say that death is not terrible and he talks to Death, even, he mocks Death. Also, the author gives the idea of an eternal life that is more powerful than death, that at the end of the world will be defeated by life.
Before going to see the content of the poem, I have to say that it is a elizabethan sonnet which is conformed by fourteen lines, in three quatrains and one couplet of five feet. This sonnet is taken from his work "Holy Sonnets" as I had said before. The problem of the order and date of the nineteen poems called the "Holy Sonnets'' is very complicated. They have usually been numbered in sequence, but the traditional order has been convincingly questioned by Dame Helen Gardner in her edition of "Donne's Divine Poems" and is here not indicated. The first two in this selection were first published in 1635, the next five in 1633, the final two, entirely unconnected, not until 1894 and 1899 respectively. Most of the sonnets were probably written about 1609, but "Since she whom I lov'd" was written after the death of Donne's wife in 1617, and "Show me dear Christ" perhaps even later.
First, in the poem we can see that the author is talking to Death, that is personified. The whole poem is a message to Death, an attention called for Death so that it do not feel powerful, and besides, I think that one intention of Donne is to show us why Death is not powerful nor terrible as people think.
"Death, be not proud, though some have called thee
Mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so;"
He begins by talking to Death, telling that is not as terrible as people think, then he adds the why:
"For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow
Die not..."
Here, the author gives the idea of the eternal life, because he says that all people who died, are not really dead. Then, the author mocks Death:
"...poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me."
Besides, Donne says that Death is not horrible because it represents rest for people who is tired.
"From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be,
Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow,
And soonest our best men with thee do go,
Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery."
Then the speaker says what Death really is:
"Thou art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men,"
Here I could say that the author gives us to understand that everybody dies because of the destination (fate) and because of the luck (chance). Also, I think that when the speaker says "kings and desperate men" he wants to say that everybody dies even if they want die or not, because for example, kings are supposed to be happy, so they do not want to die, and desperate men, on the contrary, want to die because they suffer. Everybody dies, so Death is slave of all the people because it does not rest because all the time it is going taking people with itself.
"And dost with poison, war and sickness dwell,"
He shows where death dwell, it means, the several causes for people to die, and also, he gives the idea of that all these causes are so disagreeable: poison, war and sickness are very painful for people who have to tolerate them. This idea is connected with next, where the speaker reinforces the idea that the death is only a sleep and that a sleep can be given by other causes that are not disagreeable as death is:
"And poppy or charms can make us sleep as well,
And better than thy stroke;"
Then, he asks a question to death:
"why swell'st thou then?"
Perhaps this question will never be answered.
Last two lines of the poem, I think, are very important, because they are the final conclusion the author makes about death, and are the final ideas which reinforces what he has said during the whole poem. The first line says:
"One short sleep past, we wake eternally,"
In this line, the speaker gives us the key word of his idea of life "eternally". As he was a priest of the Anglican Church, he believed in God, so he believed what the Bible says about eternal life. If we go to see a reference in the Bible, we can find many parts, but now I want to refer to the gospel according to John chapter 3 verses 14 and 15 that says:
"...the Son of man be lifted up, that every one who believes on him may not perish, but have life eternal"
Because of this, he has said what he thought during the whole poem. He knows about the eternal life, so in the last line he says:
"And death all be no more; Death, thou shalt die."
And it makes reference to another part of Bible, in the revelation or apocalypse of John in chapter 21, verse 4:
"And He shall wipe away every tear from their eyes; and death shall not exist any more, nor grief, nor cry, nor distress shall exist any more for the former things have passed away."
The speaker of this poem knows that when God join to all people, death will die because it will not have anybody to take with itself.
We could see in this poem that John Donne believed in God and in eternal life, he saw death from another perspective, from his own point of view according to his believes and thoughts, he saw death as nothing, as a think that we shall defeat when we wake to eternal life, he thinks in death as "poor" because he knows, it is no powerful and successful as everybody thinks. I think in this poem, the author shows the real face of death, he shows the weakness of death and he knows that one day, when he be with God in heaven, death will not exist any more.

Marisol Rey Castillo © 2009



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